MVP Sustainability Map



Sustainability Grade




Sustainable Population

70.1 %

Contraception Use


Species Threatened

0.46 %

Population Growth

$ 27,063

GDP Per Capita

Country Comments

According to renewable resource availability and current economic activity, Spain would need to reduce its population level 70% to become sustainable.

Air pollution, water pollution and water scarcity, depleted fisheries, and soil erosion are some of the environmental challenges facing its citizens. Spain is the second most visited country by tourists, which has caused massive growth in coastal development and its ensuing environmental damage.

The country has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world which would help toward a path of declining population. However, Spain has also been very welcoming of immigrants. Between 2002 and 2014 Spain was the second-largest recipient of immigrants in absolute terms among OECD countries, following the United States. In fact the last decade has seen anywhere from 300,000 to 600,000 new immigrants a year settle in the country, offsetting low birth rates and causing the country’s population to continue growing, making it more difficult to live in balance with nature and achieve lasting sustainability.