MVP Sustainability Map
GDP Per Capita
Vyacheslav Argenberg; License CC BY 4.0; Image https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shan_Hills%2C_Myanmar%2C_Pastoral_landscape_in_remote_Myanmar_%28Burma%29.jpg via Wikimedia Commons.
DANIEL JULIE; License CC BY 2.0; Image https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IMG3688_Burma_Sittw%C3%A9_city_%28Akyab%29_Arakan_State_Fishers_harbour_%287313689214%29.jpg via Wikimedia Commons.
Thomas Schoch; License CC BY-SA 3.0; Image https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Woman_with_child_Burma_3.jpg via Wikimedia Commons.
From a human rights and environmental perspective Myanmar has significant headwinds in front of it. The February 2021 military coup is a significant setback for democracy. Those in power have arrested officials, protesters, and media people and have eliminated civil rights.
Prior to the coup environmental issues and sustainability were on a downward spiral. Monga Bay reported a weak environmental impact assessment process, lack of accountability for violators, and a prioritization of “development” over conservation. (1)
The World Bank cited Myanmar’s forestry, fisheries and the ecosystem they provide are under tremendous pressure. Between 1990 and 2015, the forest cover has been declining at an average rate of 1.2 percent a year, totaling around 10 million hectares. The overexploitation of fish stocks has contributed to a severe decline in Myanmar’s marine fish resources, reportedly by as much as 90 percent since 1979/80. (2)
For the past decade there has been significant emigration from Myanmar of up to a few hundred thousand people each year. Nevertheless the population has been increasing steadily by over 300,000 new citizens every year in the same period and is expected to exceed the carrying capacity of the country by the end of the decade. (3)
On a positive note FP2020 reports the total fertility rate (TFR) in Myanmar has decreased from 4.7 to 2.3 (almost replacement rate) in the last 33 years. Contraceptive use among married women in Myanmar has more than tripled over the past 20 years.